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BMC Sequence weblog Highlights of the BMC Sequence – February 2023

BMC Girls’s Well being Incorporating end-users’ voices into the event of an implant for HIV prevention: a discrete selection experiment in South Africa and Zimbabwe

AIDS-related diseases are the highest reason behind dying for ladies aged 15-49 globally, with 18.8 million ladies and ladies presently residing with HIV. Younger ladies in sub-Saharan Africa are twice as possible as younger males to get contaminated as a result of socio-cultural, financial, and political inequalities. Whereas HIV prevention treatment has come a good distance, remembering to take a day by day pill will be difficult. Injectable pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) presents longer lasting and extra handy safety however nonetheless requires frequent visits to the clinic, which is why implant alternate options are being examined. However would ladies need to use them?

A current examine printed in BMC Girls’s Well being gathered suggestions from 800 ladies aged 18-30 in South Africa and Zimbabwe on their implant preferences utilizing discrete selection experiments (DCEs). DCEs are a extensively used survey technique in market analysis and well being economics that enables to determine preferences for varied services or products. This strategy enabled the researchers to prioritize the important attributes of the implant and discover the trade-offs that ladies could be keen to make. Girls had been introduced with 5 attributes of hypothetical implants, which had been primarily based on prior exploratory qualitative analysis. These attributes included rod size, variety of rods and insertion websites on the physique, length, flexibility, and biodegradability (i.e., dissolvability). The survey requested members to decide on between pairs of hypothetical implants and whether or not they would use the product they selected.

The examine discovered that ladies prioritized an extended length of safety (2 years over 6 months) and thought of the variety of insertion websites and bodily flexibility of the implant as vital options to make sure discretion of the implant. Biodegradability was thought of the least vital attribute. The authors concluded that builders ought to take these preferences into consideration when designing an implant that ladies would truly need to use.


BMC Genomics – De novo transcriptome assemblies of C3 and C4 non-model grass species reveal key variations in leaf improvement

Photosynthesis is the method by means of which crops create sugars from gentle, CO2, and water. C3 photosynthesis is the commonest sort however is constrained by an inclination of photosynthetic enzymes to repair oxygen molecules as an alternative of CO2. This phenomenon, referred to as photorespiration, squanders the plant’s vitality. C4 photosynthesis, which advanced almost 70 instances in angiosperms circumvents photorespiration and lowers the speed of photosynthesis in sure environments. Intermediate species which have traits of each C3 and C4 photosynthesis – the so-called C3 Proto-Kranz (PK) photosynthesis – are uncommon however have offered helpful insights into the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Regardless of many years of analysis, there are nonetheless many questions on the genetic adjustments that occurred throughout the evolution of C4 photosynthesis from a C3 ancestor.

In a examine just lately printed in BMC Genomics, high-confidence protein-coding leaf transcriptomes had been generated from three carefully associated non-model grass species within the Otachyriinae subtribe. Transcriptomes had been assembled throughout 4 completely different leaf segments that seize completely different phases of improvement. An evaluation of differentially expressed genes (DEG) discovered that immature segments confirmed a better transcriptional dynamic than mature segments. This sample was noticed in each C4 and PK leaves, however the pattern of reducing DEG was diminished within the C3 leaf segments. Apparently, solely the C4 species maintained excessive ranges of DEG till a later stage of improvement, suggesting that the C4 leaf takes extra time to finish the required anatomical differentiation previous to the activation of the photosynthetic equipment.

The authors conclude that the developmental program in C3, PK, and C4 species is evolutionarily conserved, and that the recruitment of recent pathways in C3 species might have contributed to the adjustments noticed in C4 species. This examine offers a helpful contribution to the present genomic assets and new instruments to analyze the evolution of photosynthesis.


BMC Medical Ethics Equivalence of care, confidentiality, {and professional} independence should underpin the hospital care of people experiencing incarceration

Offering healthcare for prisoners is a fancy and difficult process that presents distinctive moral, authorized, and sensible challenges. Healthcare professionals want specialised coaching to work with incarcerated folks, balancing the accountability of offering glorious medical care with sustaining safety within the healthcare setting.

A current debate article in BMC Medical Ethics explores the difficulties of offering hospital care that respects prisoners’ rights and dignity. Whereas prisoners are entitled to healthcare providers, the standard of those providers can differ extensively between international locations and even amenities. The authors emphasize that following medical ethics pointers is essential in jail medication, and spotlight the challenges of sustaining confidentiality, skilled independence, and equivalence of care in hospital settings. Healthcare professionals should be certain that safety guards don’t intrude with patient-provider interplay, and their independence from jail administration is important to attenuate the chance of conflicting loyalties.

To enhance healthcare for incarcerated people in hospitals, the authors recommend that healthcare and safety workers should work collectively whereas respecting one another’s roles and duties. Clear communication is significant for higher well being outcomes and environment friendly hospital functioning. Sufferers also needs to obtain clear details about the foundations and residing circumstances whereas in hospital to make sure compliance. Moreover, the authors advocate unbiased skilled teams commonly monitor and accredit on-site and off-site in-patient amenities for incarcerated people to make sure that medical ethics pointers are being adopted.


BMC Well being Companies AnalysisOught to I keep or ought to I’m going? Why nurses are leaving neighborhood nursing within the UK

This 12 months, the UK has been going through the largest well being employee strike actions because the starting of the NHS, inflicting vital disruption of well being care. With inflation at a 40-year excessive, well being staff are demanding a rise in wages to match elevated price of residing. In accordance with the Royal Faculty of Nursing (RCN), notoriously low pay has led to over 25,000 nurses to depart prior to now 12 months. Group nurses, who present healthcare providers to folks of their houses or in neighborhood settings (nursing houses, clinics, and well being facilities) are notably affected. However is low pay the one purpose for this mass exodus we’re witnessing?

In a examine printed in BMC Well being Companies Analysis, scientists from the College of Sheffield, Division of Nursing & Midwifery, just lately explored the variations in particular person and organizational elements between neighborhood nurses who intend to depart and those that intend to remain within the occupation. This cross-sectional on-line survey included questions on demographics, missed care, staffing ranges, job satisfaction, and intention to depart. The survey discovered that 54.5% of respondents had been dissatisfied with their job, and 27.6% of those that reported being dissatisfied supposed to depart their job. The examine recognized 4 elements which have the very best influence on neighborhood nurses who intend to depart: extreme additional time, a diminished proportion of everlasting workers, poor administration and assist, and poor working circumstances.

The outcomes of this examine are in keeping with comparable analysis carried out in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia and reveal inherent issues within the organisational construction of well being care settings. The authors recommend that coverage initiatives ought to give attention to guaranteeing that neighborhood nursing providers have adequate assets and funding to make use of a secure and required variety of workers at acceptable grades to scale back workload, burnout and improve job satisfaction.


BMC Most cancers Glycosylation spectral signatures for glioma grade discrimination utilizing Raman spectroscopy

Glioma is a tumor that originates within the glial cells of the mind and spinal twine and is assessed primarily based on the kind of glial cell they come up from. Glioblastoma is the commonest and aggressive sort of glioma with a mean survival time of 12-18 months after analysis. Tumor classification used to rely solely on histological staining, however the present gold commonplace additionally consists of molecular characterization. However, extra handy and fewer biased methods are wanted to make sure the proper classification and remedy of glioma.

A current examine printed in BMC Most cancers discusses the potential use of confocal Raman spectroscopy (RS) mixed with machine studying for goal and label-free analysis of glioma. RS is a non-invasive approach that determines the vibrational modes of molecules to determine their distinctive fingerprint. Utilizing RS together with machine studying the authors efficiently discriminated glioma grades and recognized biomolecular adjustments throughout glioma development at three completely different ranges: tissue, serum, and single cell/multicellular spheroid stage.

Extra particularly, RS was in a position to detect adjustments within the depth of biomolecules, together with proteins, hemoglobin, DNA, collagen, lipids, and glycans. The adjustments in glycosylation patterns had been discovered to be vital in glioma development and contribute to the immunosuppressive nature of the glioma micro surroundings. The examine additionally reveals that liquid biopsies from affected person serum samples may very well be used for glioma analysis and therapeutic monitoring as a minimally invasive different to strong biopsies. Lastly, completely different cell traces may very well be discriminated with excessive accuracy utilizing RS, indicating that grade discrimination could also be achievable on single dwell cells.  The authors conclude that concentrating on single cells with RS might present an extra profit to present single-cell applied sciences within the period of most cancers customized medication.

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