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Wednesday, June 7, 2023

Conjugated cross-linked phosphine as broadband mild or sunlight-driven photocatalyst for large-scale atom switch radical polymerization

Synthesis and characterization of the photocatalyst

PPh3-HCP was synthesized utilizing Friedel-Crafts alkylation response between triphenylphosphine (TPP) and dimethoxybenzene (DMB) within the presence of iron (III) chloride. The PPh3-HCP have been subsequently handled with NaBH4 to supply PPh3-CHCP (Fig. 1a and Supplementary Figs. 1 and a pair of). In contrast with PPh3-HCP, the rising peak of PPh3-CHCP close to 33 ppm indicated the interactions amongst phosphorous atom and launched teams throughout remedy (solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in Fig. 2a). Thermogravimetric (TG) outcomes advised the presence of PPh3-CHCP residue even at 800 °C (Supplementary Fig. 3). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopy in Fig. 2c, d revealed that the oxidation states of C, P, Cl, and O parts in each PPh3-HCP and PPh3-CHCP have been equivalent. The binding vitality of P in PPh3-CHCP was discovered to be 133.1 eV, indicating the formation of P=O, which can be resulted from the oxidization response between ferric chloride and triphenylphosphine within the presence of dissolved oxygen within the response media51. In contrast with PPh3-HCP, the peaks in PPh3-CHCP at round 497.0 eV and 1072 eV could possibly be assigned to Na. Contemplating there was no oxidation state change of phosphorus aspect, electrostatic interplay of Na+ with phosphorous could outcome within the intercalation of Na+ into electron-rich PPh3-CHCP framework. Power dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) evaluation additional indicated the existence of Na (inexperienced) within the frameworks (Supplementary Fig. 4).

Fig. 2: The construction characterization and photoelectric efficiency of the PPh3-CHCP.
figure 2

a Stable-state 13C NMR spectrum of PPh3-HCP. Asterisks denote spinning sidebands. b Stable-state 31P NMR spectra of PPh3-HCP and PPh3-CHCP respectively. c, d Relative XPS survey spectra of PPh3-HCP and PPh3-CHCP respectively. e UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum of the photocatalyst overlaid with the emission spectra of the sunshine sources, together with blue (λmax = 455 nm), inexperienced (λmax = 540 nm), orange (λmax = 590 nm), purple (λmax = 630 nm), 730 nm, 760 nm, 800 nm, 850 nm, 940 nm, and white mild respectively. f Photocurrent response curve of PPh3-CHCP.

CO2 sorption isotherms revealed that PPh3-CHCP possessed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) floor space of 119 m2/g (Supplementary Fig. 5). The CO2 adsorption-desorption isotherm was a typical II-type curve, which confirmed a hysteresis loop at low relative pressures that indicated the presence of mesopores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) examine revealed that the photocatalyst exhibited tough floor and fused, blended morphology (Supplementary Figs. 6 and seven).

The ultraviolet/seen (UV/Vis) absorption and photoluminescent properties of the PPh3-CHCP have been investigated previous to their functions in photo-ATRP. Stable-state subtle reflectance UV–Vis spectra of PPh3-CHCP confirmed a powerful absorption over a variety (200–900 nm), indicating its potential as a broadband mild harvester (Fig. 2e). The band hole vitality of the photocatalyst was calculated to be Eg = 1.77 eV akin to 700 nm (Supplementary Fig. 8). PPh3-CHCP exhibited a low quantum yield (ΦF = 0.117, λem = 580 nm) and nanoseconds fluorescence lifetime (3.76 ns, λem = 580 nm) respectively (Supplementary Fig. 9 and Supplementary Desk 1). In the meantime, photocurrent measurements advised the cost switch and separation capacity beneath seen mild irradiation (Fig. 2f). As such, PPh3-CHCP could possibly be appropriate to function a photocatalyst for photo-ATRP, because it exhibited a variety of absorption, comparatively low photoluminescence quantum yield, and appropriate photoelectric response.

Cu-Catalyzed ATRP utilizing PPh3-CHCP as photocatalyst beneath inexperienced mild irradiation

PPh3-CHCP was first evaluated as a photocatalyst beneath inexperienced mild irradiation (Supplementary Fig. 10) utilizing methyl acrylate (MA) as a typical monomer, because the absorption of copper advanced was weak on this spectrum and many of the unwanted side effects have been dominated out beneath these circumstances52. Polymerizations have been performed utilizing CuBr2/tris[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amine (Me6TREN) within the presence of PPh3-CHCP at room temperature utilizing ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as an initiator. As proven in Desk 1, MA could possibly be efficiently polymerized beneath inexperienced mild irradiation (0.9 mW/cm2) within the presence of PPh3-CHCP. Management experiments advised that no polymerization occurred within the absence of PPh3-CHCP or at the hours of darkness, signifying the significance of the photocatalyst for the regeneration of activating species (Desk 1). As TPP (the constructing block of PPh3-CHCP) additionally confirmed an absorption profile beneath 350 nm (Supplementary Fig. 11), it was used as a management photocatalyst in preliminary analysis. In distinction to PPh3-CHCP catalyzed polymerization, no PMA was obtained utilizing TPP, which indicated that the conjugated nature of the catalyst could play an vital position in offering photocatalytic exercise.

Desk 1 Outcomes of ATRP of MA utilizing PPh3-CHCP photocatalyst within the presence of various ligands beneath inexperienced mild irradiation

PPh3-HCP was additionally utilized in photo-catalyzed ATRP utilizing comparable circumstances to PPh3-CHCP. Outcomes indicated that PPh3-HCP may solely provide PMA with low conversion (19%) (Supplementary Desk 2), whereas PPh3-CHCP resulted in excessive conversion (Desk 1). As proven in Supplementary Fig. 12 and Supplementary Desk 3, the conductivity of PPh3-CHCP was twofold than that of PPh3-HCP, suggesting that ion intercalation performed an vital position to enhance polymerization effectivity. Usually, doping of ions enhances {the electrical} conductivity and improves the dispersity in solvents (Supplementary Fig. 13), which can contribute to polymerizations when excessive monomer conversion and good management of polymerization have been focused.

It was additionally noticed that no polymerization occurred when CuBr2/Me6TREN ratio was 1/1, which indicated that an extra of amine electron donor (Me6TREN) was wanted to provoke the polymerization. As proven in Desk 1, growing the focus of ligand resulted in near-quantitative monomer conversions, yielding well-defined polymers with low dispersity (Đ < 1.1) and managed molecular weights (Desk 1, entry 1–4). Associated dimension exclusion chromatography (SEC) outcomes have been proven in Supplementary Fig. 14, which exhibited monomodal and symmetric curves. In the meantime, when focus of PPh3-CHCP was decreased from 0.5 to 0.25 and 0.125 mg/mL (akin to 0.1, 0.05, and 0.025 wt% with respect to MA, respectively), environment friendly and well-controlled polymerizations may nonetheless be obtained with near-quantitative monomer conversion with extended time (Desk 1). All obtained polymers exhibited low dispersity and their SEC monomodal outcomes are proven in Supplementary Fig. 14. Polymerization of MA was additionally carried out utilizing tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPMA) and N,N,N′,N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA) as ligands. The monomer conversions reached 93% and 90% (with dispersity of 1.07 and 1.12) from TPMA and PMDETA, respectively (Desk 1 and Supplementary Fig. 15), which advised the excessive versatility of this method. As well as, polymerization was additionally efficiently performed utilizing N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or acetonitrile (MeCN) as solvent within the presence of PPh3-CHCP, reaching excessive monomer conversions and yielding polymers with low dispersity values (Đ < 1.1) and managed molecular weights (Desk 1 and Supplementary Fig. 15). Reducing focus of CuBr2 resulted in a rise within the charge of polymerization, however produced polymers with comparatively broad dispersity. For instance, quick polymerization of MA was achieved that supplied 99% monomer conversion inside <5 h however with a excessive dispersity worth of 1.20 (entry 18, Desk 1), by lowering the quantity of CuBr2 from 0.04 to 0.005 equiv (with respect to initiator or 25 ppm with respect to monomer) (Supplementary Fig. 16). Within the presence of 0.01 or 0.02 equiv (50 or 100 ppm, respectively) of CuBr2 (entries 19 and 20, Desk 1), the resultant polymers confirmed a low dispersity of 1.10 (Supplementary Fig. 16). Moreover, the polymerization of MA beneath each low focus of PPh3-CHCP (0.125 mg/mL) and copper catalyst (CuBr2/Me6TREN, 25 ppm) (entry 21, Desk 1) yielded PMA with a low dispersity worth of 1.07 (Supplementary Fig. 17).

Kinetic examine was carried out in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and DMF respectively, and outcomes are proven in Fig. 3. PPh3-CHCP in DMSO exhibited an induction interval (<4 h), after which the polymerization progressed with an obvious charge fixed of okpapp = 0.69 h−1, a lot sooner than that noticed in DMF (okpapp = 0.24 h−1) (Fig. 3a). Each polymerizations introduced a dwelling nature. Molecular weights of obtained polymers have been in keeping with the theoretical values, and their dispersity have been low (Fig. 3b and Supplementary Fig. 18). The induction interval within the polymerization could also be as a result of presence of dissolved oxygen within the response options45. As well as, as typical photocatalyzed ATRPs, the polymerizations exhibited a temporal management conduct in response to switching the sunshine on/off (Fig. 3c, d and Supplementary Fig. 19). The darkish interval was extended as much as 12 h and associated outcomes are proven in Supplementary Fig. 20. A negligible monomer conversion was noticed in darkish, which counsel that energetic radicals are usually not effectively generated beneath darkish circumstances. The polymerizations could possibly be impacted by mild depth. Outcomes of polymerizations beneath inexperienced mild with different mild intensities utilizing MA as typical monomer are proven in Supplementary Fig. 21. Outstanding enhance of polymerization charge and slight lower of the induction interval within the early stage have been noticed when the sunshine depth was elevated progressively from 0.6 to 1.5 mW/cm2, which can also be talked about in earlier reviews of photo-RDRP53.

Fig. 3: Outcomes for the polymerization of MA utilizing PPh3-CHCP.
figure 3

a Kinetics and b evolution of molecular weight (Mn, crammed factors) and dispersity (Đ, empty factors) of the polymers as a perform of monomer conversion in ATRP of MA utilizing 0.5 (in DMSO) and a pair of mg/mL (in DMF) PPh3-CHCP photocatalyst with Me6TREN ligands respectively. c Temporal management in ATRP of MA upon intermittent switching inexperienced mild on/off within the presence of the PPh3-CHCP photocatalyst. d Plot of Mn and Đ (strong symbols point out after irradiation, and open symbols point out after darkish interval) versus monomer conversions, utilizing PPh3-CHCP because the photocatalyst in DMF throughout pulsed mild irradiation. Response circumstances: [MA]/[EBiB]/[CuBr2]/[Me6TREN] = 200/1/0.04/x, x = 0.12 or 0.2 in 50 vol% DMSO or DMF respectively, irradiated beneath inexperienced LEDs (0.9 mW/cm2).

Kinetic examine advised that PPh3-CHCP could possibly be utilized as a extremely environment friendly photocatalyst. Within the PPh3-CHCP catalyzed photo-ATRP course of (proven in Fig. 1b), as a typical PET-ATRP, excitation of the photocatalyst resulted within the separation of electron-hole cost carriers that might generate activating species upon reacting with the Cu catalyst and electron donors, respectively. Nevertheless, the ATRP activator (L/CuI) could possibly be generated by an electron switch from the photocatalyst lowering L/CuII-Br to L/CuI. Moreover, switch of holes to amine electron donors (D) fashioned amine radical cation (D•+) species and regenerated the preliminary floor state PPh3-CHCP photocatalyst. Deprotonation of the amine radical cation could additional proceed to generate α-aminoalkyl radicals (D) that cut back L/CuII-Br to generate the activator L/CuI catalyst. Subsequently, activating/initiating species have been fashioned by completely different pathways within the presence of the photocatalyst to begin the ATRP course of on this system54.

Photoexcitation of PPh3-CHCP resulted within the inhabitants of its excited state PPh3-CHCP*. Electron switch between PPh3-CHCP* and alkyl bromides resulted in era of the propagating radicals. In the meantime, the oxidized PPh3-CHCP (PPh3-CHCP•+) extra doubtless reacted with amine electron donors to regenerate the PPh3-CHCP photocatalyst. This was not directly just like the organocatalyzed ATRP mechanism reported beforehand55. As a management, irradiating options of PPh3-CHCP in DMSO with ethyl α-bromophenylacetate (EBPA) and EBiB have been additionally carried out to analyze whether or not radicals are generated from initiator and PPh3-CHCP (Supplementary Fig. 22). As anticipated, dimer and Br2 have been noticed throughout ESI-mass spectrometric evaluation (Supplementary Fig. 23), indicating the numerous homolytic cleavage of C-Br bond within the presence of the PPh3-CHCP and lightweight irradiation.

As a heterogeneous photocatalyst, PPh3-CHCP could possibly be simply separated from the response combination and reused in a number of ATRP cycles whereas retaining its excessive photocatalytic effectivity. The recycled PPh3-CHCP photocatalyst enabled successive ATRP of MA within the presence of CuBr2/Me6TREN in DMSO. After 5 cycles, close to quantitative monomer conversions have been nonetheless obtained with well-controlled molecular weights and low dispersity values of the polymers (Supplementary Figs. 24 and 25). The recovered photocatalyst was additionally characterised by SEM-EDS elemental mapping (Supplementary Fig. 26), and no apparent Cu sign was noticed suggesting that the photocatalyst has weak capacity to entice Cu atoms, which might not influence ends in the recycling experiments.

PPh3-CHCP catalyzed ATRP can be utilized to quite a lot of acrylates with excessive conversions and yields, along with managed molecular weights and low dispersity values (Supplementary Desk 4). For instance, conversion of n-butyl acrylate (BA), (2-methoxyethyl) acrylate (MEA), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate (TFEA), benzyl acrylate (BzA), and tert-butyl acrylate (t-BA) was 99%, 99%, 83%, 99%, and 99%, with dispersity of 1.11, 1.08, 1.06, 1.08 and 1.12, respectively. Polymerizations of methyl acrylates have been additionally efficiently carried out and the associated outcomes and SEC curves are proven in Supplementary Fig. 27. Conversion of methyl methacrylate (MMA), n-butyl methacrylate (n-BMA), cyclohexyl methacrylate (CHMA), and lauryl methacrylate (LMA), and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) approached 99% with dispersity of 1.12, 1.18, 1.20, 1.12, and 1.29, respectively, amongst which the polymerization of OEGMA was performed in NaBr aqueous answer. Polymerization of styrene was additionally performed utilizing PPh3-CHCP as photocatalyst beneath blue mild irradiation and achieved 48% monomer conversion (designed DP:100) with comparatively low dispersity (1.15) in 24 h (Supplementary Fig. 27 and Supplementary Desk 4), which was akin to probably the most environment friendly photoinduced Cu-ATRP system56.

Chain extension experiments revealed the excessive dwelling nature of the ensuing polymers to allow the formation of di-block copolymers. A PMA macroinitiator (conversion ~99%, Mn = 17700, Đ = 1.06) was utilized to provoke the second monomer (MEA) that resulted in 99% conversion and supplied a well-defined di-block copolymer (Mn = 42,700, Đ = 1.06) (Supplementary Fig. 27). In the meantime, PMA (Mn = 8200, Đ = 1.06) obtained from inexperienced mild irradiation was characterised by 1H NMR (Supplementary Fig. 28). The ratio of integral worth between methyl group (g, from residual of initiator) and methine group (c, chain finish) was 0.96:6, which was very near the theoretical ratio (1:6), suggesting retention of chain-end performance57.

ATRP beneath broadband mild and daylight

PPh3-CHCP exhibited sturdy catalytic properties beneath broadband mild irradiation. Typical outcomes from polymerizations of MA and MMA are proven in Supplementary Desk 5. Each MA and MMA achieved almost quantitative conversions beneath blue (0.9 mW/cm2), orange (2 mW/cm2), purple (2 mW/cm2), and white mild (0.9 mW/cm2). Performing photocatalyzed RDRP beneath lengthy wavelength mild can suppress aspect reactions and improve photon penetration depth in response media49. The event of twin photoredox catalytic methods with Cu-ATRPs similar to the usage of zinc(II) tetraphenylporphine (ZnPor) photocatalyst provide alternatives to supply polymers with excessive yielding beneath lengthy wavelength mild irradiation44,58. Subsequently, growing appropriate photocatalysts for twin photoredox catalytic methods may vastly assist to attain NIR light-induced Cu-ATRP56. As PPh3-CHCP exhibited comparatively sturdy absorption in close to infra-red (NIR) area, the sunshine wavelength could possibly be prolonged to NIR (730–940 nm with various intensities) (Fig. 2e). The response time to succeed in most monomer conversion progressively turned longer, which can be as a result of the sunshine absorption of PPh3-CHCP decreased with growing wavelength. The dispersity of the acrylates and methyl acrylates have been lesser than 1.09 and 1.12 respectively, which indicated good management over the polymerizations (Supplementary Desk 5). Associated SEC outcomes confirmed monomodal and symmetric curves (Fig. 4) and the polymerization charges of PPh3-CHCP system have been excessive. In the meantime, the irradiation depth in our system was usually a lot decrease than that of comparable methods (Supplementary Fig. 29), and this was helpful for manufacturing inside low mild depth circumstances similar to cloudy day or low output energy. Excessive chain-end constancy may stay beneath broadband mild irradiation in keeping with 1H NMR evaluation of polymer obtained from blue, purple and 940 nm mild irradiation (Supplementary Desk 6 and Supplementary Fig. 30), respectively. These outcomes point out the dwelling nature of the photoinduced Cu-ATRPs beneath mild irradiation with completely different wavelengths.

Fig. 4: Outcomes for the polymerization of MA and MMA utilizing PPh3-CHCP beneath broadband mild and daylight respectively.
figure 4

a Monomer conversions of MA and MMA utilizing PPh3-CHCP as photocatalyst beneath blue, inexperienced, orange, purple, white, 730 nm, 760 nm, 800 nm, 850 nm, 940 nm, and daylight irradiation respectively. Experimental particulars have been supplied within the supplementary supplies. SEC traces of synthesized b PMA (colour coded) and c PMMA (colour coded) utilizing PPh3-CHCP beneath collection mild irradiation. d SEC traces of 200 mL scale of PMA macroinitiator (in blue) and 400 mL scale of PMA200b-PMMA170 copolymer (in purple, and 192.9 g block copolymer was obtained lastly) upon in situ chain extension exhibiting excessive chain-end constancy and profitable chain extension. The polymers have been synthesized utilizing PPh3-CHCP within the absence of exterior deoxygenation.

NIR radiations have outstanding penetrating capacity with minimal absorption and scattering. Benefiting from this characteristic, we additionally carried out polymerizations in response vessels wrapped with opaque paper (thickness ~0.4 mm) as mild boundaries, attaining environment friendly monomer conversions (>94%) and in shut settlement with the theoretical and experimental molecular weight (Supplementary Desk 7 and Supplementary Fig. 31). In conclusion, polymerization charge of NIR light-induced Cu-ATRP utilizing PPh3-CHCP was nearer to many of the photocatalyzed RDRPs beneath NIR mild irradiation37,59 (Supplementary Desk 8). In the meantime, the irradiation depth in our system was usually a lot decrease and monomer conversions have been comparatively greater (e.g., 99%). The efficiency of NIR penetration photo-ATRP utilizing PPh3-CHCP was akin to the beforehand reviews (Supplementary Desk 9). The deep penetration of NIR mild presents alternatives to use large-scale PPh3-CHCP catalyzed Cu-ATRPs (together with each batch and microfluidic gadgets), which is predicted to advertise scalable manufacturing of well-defined polymers.

It will be very helpful for industrial functions to develop solar-driven photopolymerization protocols, if the polymerization can obtain full monomer conversions inside a single daylight irradiation interval (e.g., 6–8 h throughout daytime together with cloudy climate) at massive scale. Such growth largely depends on the synthesis and utility of extremely environment friendly photocatalysts, which might be utilized persistently. Detailed investigations advised that PPh3-CHCP may fulfill these necessities. Polymerizations of MA or MMA have been achieved inside 6 h utilizing 0.5 mg/mL PPh3-CHCP beneath pure daylight, leading to monomer conversions of 99% (Supplementary Desk 5). The obtained polymers confirmed Mn near the theoretical values and low dispersity values (1.06 and 1.12 for PMA and PMMA respectively, entry 11 and 23 in Supplementary Desk 5). As compared, restricted (~48%) or negligible (~0%) monomer conversions have been noticed for MA and MMA with out PPh3-CHCP respectively (Supplementary Desk 10 and Supplementary Fig. 32). Contemplating there was negligible conversion of MA beneath blue and inexperienced mild irradiation (Supplementary Desk 11), the focus of CuI activator regenerated by UV rays from daylight was not ample to maintain important chain development in a brief interval60.

PPh3-CHCP catalyzed polymerization additionally demonstrated restricted oxygen tolerance. This was evaluated by performing the polymerization of MMA and MA with out degassing the response mixtures beneath blue mild and daylight respectively. The polymerizations of MA and MMA have been performed in a sealed however non-degassed vessel (5 mL) utilizing a complete liquid quantity of 4.8 mL (50/50 (v/v) of solvent/monomer) beneath blue mild irradiation. 1H NMR characterization revealed a monomer conversion of 99% for MA and MMA after 3.5 h and 6 h, respectively, whereas SEC confirmed the presence of PMA (Mn = 18,800, Đ = 1.05) and PMMA (Mn = 19,200, Đ = 1.13) with good management of molecular weight, which is in good settlement with the theoretical values, and slim dispersity (Supplementary Desk 12 and Supplementary Fig. 33a). Comparable outcomes have been additionally obtained beneath daylight with out deoxygenation course of (Supplementary Desk 12 and Supplementary Fig. 33b). Restricted oxygen tolerance will simplify reactor design and present nice sensible utility potential.

The functions of sunlight-driven photoreaction methods in reported photo-RDRPs (together with ATRP and PET-RAFT) weren’t a lot environment friendly in massive scale synthesis. Because of the restricted penetration depth and photo-scattering, most polymerizations resulted in low conversions or much less management over the polymerization course of. Herein, we report the large-scale polymerization within the presence of PPh3-CHCP beneath daylight even with out deoxygenation. For instance, 200 mL scale polymerization (containing 100 mL of MMA or MA) was performed with out deoxygenation (Fig. 1c), and the outcomes are proven in Supplementary Desk 5. Each MMA and MA approached 99% conversions inside 6 h of daylight irradiation, producing polymers with dispersity of 1.15 and 1.08, respectively. It’s price mentioning that in keeping with the statistics from the previous 20 years of meteorological knowledge, the realm the place the analysis was performed remained cloudy for about 70% of the time31. Subsequent, after the polymerization of MA (200 mL, Vmonomer/Vsolvent = 1/1), MMA answer (200 mL, Vmonomer/Vsolvent = 1/1) was in situ added to generate the second block in a 500 mL response bottle beneath blue mild irradiation. Each polymerizations have been performed with out deoxygenation, and well-defined diblock copolymer (Mn = 34,100, Đ = 1.18) was obtained with 99% conversion of MMA (Fig. 4d). In the meantime, diffusion constants of synthesized PMA200b-PMMA170 have been virtually fixed (Supplementary Fig. 34), suggesting that there have been a number of homopolymers of PMA or PMMA within the closing product. The monomodal SEC curves and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR outcomes point out the formation of block copolymer. This additional advised the excessive photo-catalytic effectivity of PPh3-CHCP.

Subsequently, we imagine that that is the primary report of the total conversion of low energetic monomer (MMA) in sunlight-driven photocatalyzed polymerization inside single photo voltaic irradiation interval. That is additionally the largest-scale polymerization course of (with diameter ~8.6 cm and virtually ~0.6 cm thickness of glass vial) reported for photocatalyzed RDRP beneath daylight with out deoxygenation (Supplementary Fig. 35). The profitable large-scale synthesis of each homopolymers and block copolymers demonstrates its nice industrial utility potential.

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