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Wednesday, March 29, 2023

Excessive yield synthesis of HMF from glucose and fructose by selective catalysis with water-tolerant uncommon earth metallic triflates assisted by choline chloride

The conversion of naturally occurring natural substances into value-added platform chemical substances by easy, inexperienced and environment friendly procedures represents some of the accessible and wanted routes in the direction of sustainable chemistry. Within the current work we stock out a dialogue on the exceptional catalytic exercise of rare-earth metallic triflates together with choline chloride, a pure, low-cost and obtainable natural compound to selectively convert glucose and fructose into hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The hypothesized mechanism is predicated on the preliminary glycosylation of glucose assisted by scandium(III) triflate and choline chloride to supply a glycoside, which might evolve by way of an intramolecular rearrangement and subsequent dehydration to supply closing product HMF. A comparability with different kinds of catalysts is carried out, with specific consideration to the facet reactions. The equipment consists in a closed biphasic system and we show the superb capability of methyl propyl ketone (MPK) to extract HMF in just one cycle. The method is performed at 150 °C utilizing 1.5 molar equivalents of choline chloride through which glucose is transformed into HMF after three hours, utilizing the catalyst in 8% molar amount, whereas fructose is transformed in a single hour using the catalyst in 4% molar amount. The very best efficiency was obtained by using scandium(III) triflate as catalyst with yield 94% and 99% of HMF from glucose or fructose, respectively. We assumed a primary order response mannequin each for glucose and fructose conversion into HMF. The R-squared values are better than 0.9, demonstrating that our kinetic mannequin fitted effectively with the experimental outcomes. As well as, activation energies are 16.9 kJ mol-1 for glucose and 9.31 kJ mol-1 for fructose, because of the longer response path of glucose. The catalytic system may be recycled as much as 5 occasions with an HMF yield of over 80% for glucose and over 90% for fructose sustaining the identical selectivity.

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