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Monday, June 5, 2023

The origin of magnetization-caused increment in water oxidation

Movies preparation

NiFe skinny movies on this work have been ready by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on naturally oxidized Si (1 1 1) substrates at a typical base strain of <5 × 10−5 Pa, a piece processing Ar strain of 0.2 Pa, an influence of fifty W, and a goal substrate distance of 9 cm. The samples have been deposited from a permalloy goal with a nominal atomic composition of 20/80. Throughout sputtering, at room temperature, the columnar crystals fashioned by vertical sputtering introduce form anisotropy, which is perpendicular magnetic anisotropy26,27. With these parameters, we obtained a sputtering charge of 0.15 nm/s. This charge was calculated from a management pattern with a masks wherein the peak step was measured utilizing an atomic power microscope. Seven movies have been ready with completely different thicknesses: 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, and 800 nm.

Electrochemical characterization

The OER exams have been operated in a three-electrode cell with a NiFe movie because the working electrode (WE), a platinum foil counter electrode, and a Hg/HgO (1.0 M KOH) reference electrode. The schematic diagram of working electrode preparation exhibits in Supplementary Fig. 1. Au was deposited on the NiFe movies the place contact with the Pt electrode holder. Then, the movie as a working electrode was hooked up to a Pt electrode holder. Subsequently, the again and sides of the electrode have been coated with a non-conductive, chemically resistant epoxy (Omegabond 101). An efficient electrode floor (0.2 cm × 0.2 cm; space: 0.04 cm2) was uncovered to 1.0 M KOH throughout electrochemical measurements. The electrochemical measurements have been carried out by a Biologic SP-150 potentiostat. The KOH electrolyte with a focus of 1.0 M was ready utilizing deionized water (>18 MΩ cm) and KOH pellets (99.99% purity, Sigma-Aldrich). Oxygen was bubbled to make sure O2/OH equilibrium at 1.23 V vs. RHE. All potentials have been transformed to RHE scale with iR correction based on the equation: E (vs. RHE) = E (vs. Hg/HgO) + 0.059 × pH + 0.098-iR, the place i is the present and R is the electrolyte resistance, decided by high-frequency AC impedance (~15 Ω for 1.0 M KOH). All electrochemical knowledge have been normalized utilizing movie floor space (Supplementary Desk 2).

Supplies characterizations

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of those movies have been recorded by a Bruker D8 diffractometer at a scanning charge of two° min−1, underneath Cu-Okayα radiation (λ = 1.5418 Å). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) have been carried out utilizing a HITACHI S5000 with an energy-dispersive evaluation system, Bruker XFlash 6|60. DC magnetization measurements have been carried out on a Superconducting Quantum Design (SQUID) magnetometer (MPMS-XL). The SQUID measurements of the magnetization of samples as a operate of the magnetic subject have been carried out at 300 Okay in fields between −2000 Oe and +2000 Oe. Movie floor morphologies have been examined by atomic power microscopy (AFM) underneath tapping mode (Asylum Analysis). The Cypher AFM/MFM manufactured by Asylum Analysis was carried out for MFM experiments. The MFM ideas used have been PPP-MFMR from NANOSENSORS with 300 Oe coercivity, 300 emμ cm−3 magnetic second, and magnetic decision higher than 50 nm, optimized for non-perturbative magnetic imaging with excessive spatial decision.

Micromagnetic simulations

The area buildings fashioned in skinny movies have been investigated by micromagnetic simulation of a skinny movie mannequin with completely different thicknesses, wherein perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with slight tilt was utilized. Micromagnetic simulations have been carried out utilizing the mumax3 software program bundle28. The micromagnetic simulations are primarily based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation with the magnetic Hamiltonian described as

$${{{{{mathcal{H}}}}}},{{{{{mathscr{=}}}}}}{{{{{mathscr{-}}}}}}Amathop{sum}limits_{ < i,j > }{{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{i}cdot {{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{j}-{Okay}_{{in}}mathop{sum}limits_{i}{left({{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{i}proper)}^{2}-{Okay}_{p}mathop{sum}limits_{i}{left({{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{i}proper)}^{2}-mathop{sum}limits_{i}Bcdot {{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{i}$$


the place ({{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{i}) represents the normalized spin on the website (i), (left|{{{{{{rm{m}}}}}}}_{i}proper |=1). (A), ({Okay}_{{in}}),(,{Okay}_{p}) symbolize the amplitude of trade interplay, in-plane and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. (B) is the exterior magnetic subject.

It ought to be famous that Mumax3 doesn’t present two completely different sorts of uniaxial anisotropy straightforwardly. Fortuitously, the parameter ({Okay}_{u}) is a vector in order that we are able to take into account in-plane and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are two parts of ({Okay}_{u}). The type of ({Okay}_{u}) looks as if ({Okay}_{u}=({Okay}_{{in}},,0,,{Okay}_{p})).

We take into account the mannequin of a skinny movie with magnetic parameters akin to that of the everyday permalloy Ni80Fe20 movie29—the saturation magnetization ({M}_{s}) = 1000 emu/cm3, the trade fixed (A=1times {10}^{-6}) erg/cm, and the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy ({Okay}_{{in}}=3.25,instances {10}^{3}) erg/cm3. The formation of stripe domains in NiFe movies, typically, is brought on by competing trade interplay power, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy power, and demagnetization power. When the thickness varies, the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy power and demagnetization power might each range dependently. The demagnetization power may be calculated mechanically through the simulation. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy power ought to be set manually. Right here we make an estimation to take the thickness-dependent perpendicular anisotropy into consideration: the perpendicular anisotropy of NiFe movies will increase linearly from 2.5 (instances) 105 erg/cm3 to 4 (instances) 105 erg/cm3 within the vary of 200–800 nm19. The in-plane anisotropy was oriented alongside the x-axis, whereas the perpendicular anisotropy lay alongside the z-axis (regular to the movie aircraft). The dimensions of every discretization cell was 4 × 4 × 4 nm. We set a 2048 × 50 × N mesh with in-plane periodic boundary situations to keep away from the boundary impact. N = 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200 correspond with the movie thickness 200–800 nm. Word that, in our simulations, the size of the movies alongside the x-axis should be for much longer than the width of domains to cut back the impression of integer intervals on magnetic domains. The method can, consequently, precisely get the quantity ratios of area partitions to the entire system. Beginning with a random preliminary magnetic state, the system is utilized with a small exterior magnetic subject alongside the y-axis to hurry up the evolution. Then the sector is repealed to acquire the bottom states. All the info have been extracted from the bottom states. Technical particulars on the picture hooked up may be extracted from the mumax3 enter file used to generate the info:

Ms: = 1000 // emu/cm3

Msat = Ms*1000 // A/m

A: = 1e−6 // erg/cm

Aex = A*1e−5 //J/m

Hin: = 6.5 // Oe

Okayin: = Hin * Ms/2 * 1e−1// J/m3

Hp: = 517 // Oe

Okayp: = Hp * Ms/2 * 1e−1 // J/m3

Okayu1 = sqrt(Okayin * Okayin + Okayp * Okayp)

anisU = vector(Okayin, 0, Okayp)

alpha = 0.025

dx: = 4e-9

dy: = 4e-9

dz: = 4e-9

nx: = 2048

ny: = 100

nz: = 50

SetGridSize (nx, ny, nz)

SetCellSize (dx, dy, dz)

SetPBC (4, 4, 0)

m = randommag ()

B_ext = vector (0, 1, 0)

Loosen up ()

B_ext = vector (0, 0, 0)

Run (2e−8)

Loosen up ()

Save (m)

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